FCC – Testing Approvals and Certifications

FCC Approval Mark | EMC Bayswater

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Testing, approvals, and certification

FCC Testing Services | EMC Bayswater

(Electromagnetic Compatibility Radiated immunity testing above 1GHz performed at a 3m distance using a uniformed 16 point calibration at EMC Bayswater.)

What is Electromagnetic compatibility testing?

‘Electromagnetic Compatibility testing’ is commonly abbreviated to ‘EMC testing’. EMC Testing is performed in order to achieve or demonstrate correct operation, in the same electromagnetic environment as different equipment. Furthermore to avoid any interference effects thus allowing electromagnetic compatibility.

Electromagnetic Compatibility compliance testing comprises of two main parts. Firstly ‘Emissions’ and secondly ‘Immunity or susceptibility’. Some countries mandate testing of only emissions such as Australia (Regulatory Compliance Mark (RCM)), United States (FCC Approval) and Canada (Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED), previously Industry Canada – IC) whilst other countries including the European community (CE mark) require both emissions and immunity EMC testing to demonstrate compliance.

Some countries mandate testing of only emissions such as Australia (Regulatory Compliance Mark (RCM)), United States (FCC verification and certification) and Canada (Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED), previously Industry Canada – IC) whilst other countries including the European community (CE mark) require both emissions and immunity EMC testing to demonstrate compliance.

 

EMC Testing of Emissions

EMC emissions testing can include various different forms of techniques used to measure different forms of energy and the means of which they propagate some of these tests include the following:

 

Radiated emissions and radiated disturbances

The measurement of radiated electromagnetic energy from an electronic device or apparatus. Either measuring the magnetic field (H field) or the electric field (E field) components depending upon the frequency range and also the EMC standard limits.

Any electronic product may generate electromagnetic fields that unintentionally propagate unwanted radio frequencies through the enclosure. This can be wither ‘cabinet radiation’ or via connecting cables that act as antennas ‘cable radiation’.

Electric fields (E fields) are usually measured in V/m (Volts per meter).  The units are usually scaled to make the small quantities that are measured easy to work with resulting in the unit

Any electronic product may generate electromagnetic fields that unintentionally propagate unwanted radio frequencies through the enclosure.

This can be wither ‘cabinet radiation’ or via connecting cables that act as antennas ‘cable radiation’. Electric fields (E fields) are usually measured in V/m (Volts per meter).

The units are usually scaled to make the small quantities that are measured easy to work with resulting in the unit

Electric fields (E fields) are usually measured in V/m (Volts per meter).  The units are usually scaled to make the small quantities that are measured easy to work with resulting in the unit dBuV/m.

Magnetic fields (H fields) are similarly scaled however the units are expressed in A/m and conventionally used units are dBuA/m.

 

Conducted emissions and conducted disturbances

The measurement of conductive electromagnetic energy from an electronic device or apparatus  returned to the supply or terminal including at the AC mains terminal, DC input port, Telecommunication port (LAN etc) and load terminal (AC or DC output etc) using either a LISN, T-LISN, current or voltage clamp or network depending upon the frequency range and also the EMC standard limits. Any electronic product may generate electromagnetic fields that unintentionally propagate unwanted radio frequencies via a conductive path that could possibly couple onto a wider network and cause interference.

Conducted emissions are usually measured in V (Volts) and are usually scaled to make the small quantities that are measured easy to work with resulting in the unit

Any electronic product may generate electromagnetic fields that unintentionally propagate unwanted radio frequencies via a conductive path that could possibly couple onto a wider network and cause interference.

Conducted emissions are usually measured in V (Volts) and are usually scaled to make the small quantities that are measured easy to work with resulting in the unit

Conducted emissions are usually measured in V (Volts) and are usually scaled to make the small quantities that are measured easy to work with resulting in the unit dBuV.

 

AC mains port harmonic currents

A requirement for AC mains powered products for Europe (CE) this is a measurement of the harmonic content of the mains supply i.e. 50Hz and the associated harmonics that will be seen on the local mains network when an AC mains product is connected and powered.

 

AC mains flicker

A requirement for AC mains powered products for Europe (CE). This test is basically an AC mains load variation test performed to essentially ensure the mains supply is not varied. This variation on the mains network may affect other products connected the same mains supply.  A typical product that

This variation on the mains network may affect other products connected the same mains supply.  A typical product that

A typical product that has large switching loads would include a washing machine, electric cooking products etc.

 

Immunity and susceptibility EMC Testing

Real world phenomenon simulated using defined EMC testing techniques are used to ensure correct operation of a product within a specified tolerance that would be acceptable by the end user or consumer.

 

Radiated immunity or susceptibility

Radiated RF immunity to electric fields or Magnetic fields is the simulation of direct and cable coupled RF on a product and the effect in the correct behavior of the product.

Test levels and frequency ranges are dependent upon different standards in addition to the products intended electromagnetic environment.

 

Conducted RF immunity or susceptibility

Conducted RF immunity is the simulation cable coupled RF on a product and the effect in the correct behavior of the product.

Test levels and frequency ranges are dependent upon different standards in addition to the products intended electromagnetic environment.

 

Surges immunity

Surge immunity is the simulation of cable coupled surge transients. Via the AC, DC, functional earth or signal ports on a product and the effect in the correct behavior of the product.

Test levels are dependent upon different standards in addition to the products intended electromagnetic environment.

 

Electrical fast transient (EFT)

Electrical fast transients (EFT) is the simulation of cable coupled Electrical fast transients. Via either the AC, DC, functional earth or signal ports on a product and the effect in the correct behavior of the product.

Test levels are dependent upon different standards in addition to the products intended electromagnetic environment.

 

AC mains voltage dips and voltage interrupts

AC mains voltage dips and interrupts is the simulation of the mains electricity supply during a black out or brown out situation only applies to the AC input ports, the assessment of the correct behavior of the product is dependent upon the type of voltage dips or interrupts.

 

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

Electrostatic discharge or ESD is the simulation of direct air discharge, direct contact discharge or indirect contact discharge from an electrostatic source such as a person etc and the observation of the correct behavior of the product.

Test levels are dependent upon different standards in addition to the products intended electromagnetic environment.

 

Vehicular transients

Vehicular transients are the application and simulation of various transient pulses that occur during normal operation of a motor vehicle.

These transients can be coupled onto the associated cables such as power cables or wiring harness.

These include supply disconnection of inductive loads, DC motors acting as generators after the ignition is switched off, cranking the engine, the observation of the correct behavior of the product is required.

 

Source: Courtesy of EMC Bayswater Melbourne, Australia